Linux

Hello my Name is … and will tell you something about Linux today:
Linux is an operating system that was created as a hobby by a young student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Linus began his work in 1991 and worked continuously until 1994 when version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel was released. The heart of all Linux systems is the Linux Kernel, it is the gateway between the programs and the microprocessor and its source code is freely available for everyone.
Linux is written in the version of the C programming language. Some drivers are also written in C++ in C++, Fortran, or other languages. There are now hundreds of companies and organizations who released their own versions of operating systems based on the Linux kernel. IBM, Hewlett-Packard and other giants of the computing world have adopted Linux and support its ongoing development.
Primarily Linux has been adopted worldwide as a server platform.
It is used as an operating system for a wide range of computer hardware, including desktop computers, supercomputers, video game systems such as the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3, several arcade games, and embedded devices such as mobile phones and routers.
The operating system can also be incorporated directly into microchips in a process called “embedding” and is increasingly being used this way in appliances and devices.
Now I tell you about the official mascot of Linux
Linux has an official mascot it named Tux, the Linux penguin, which was selected by Linux Torvalds to represent the image he associates with the operating system.
Tux was created by Larry Ewing and Larry has freely given it to the community to be generously used to promote Linux.
Tux’ are included in many Computer games like:
The first game is pingus, it is a game where A Lemmings clone in which the lemmings are replaced by penguins in reference to Tux. An another game is Super Tux, it is a platform game inspired by Super Mario Bros. The next games are Tux Kart and Super Tux Kart, they are Kart racing games similar to the Mario Kart series. This game is Tux Racer, it is A game similar to snowboarding video games, in which the player controls Tux sliding downhill on his stomach rather than humans snowboarding down a track. The Last Tux Game is Wormux it, is a free and open-source clone of the classic game Worms.
Through the efforts of developers of desktop management systems such as KDE and
GNOME, office suite project OpenOffice.org and the Mozilla web browser project, to name
only a few, there are now a wide range of applications that run on Linux and it can be used by
anyone just the same of his/her knowledge of computers.
GNOME is an international effort to build a complete desktop environment—the graphical
user interface which sits on top of a computer operating system—totally from free software.
In Gnome the head bar contains the clock and the Start-menu to run applications
And the task bar is located at the bottom.
KDE (K Desktop Environment) is a free software project which aims to be a powerful system
for an easy-to-use desktop environment.
That is Konqi, the mascot of the KDE project
KDE is much better for people who use Linux for the first time.
On this Button you can switch between one to eight desktops.
And Here you can start the shell to use UNIX commands.
By clicking on this “K” button you can open the start menu.
When you click on the Conquerer Button you can open the Browser Mozilla Firefox.
And here you can start your email Program Kmail
• Openoffice.org is the office program for Linux and it looks like the Microsoft office.
• With around 18 percent of worldwide usage, Firefox is the second popular web
browser. In Addition it is used as standard browser for Linux.
• Wine is a program which enables Linux to open windows programs.
Now I will tell you something about Distributions. Distributions are Kinds of Linux.
Linux has three kinds of Distributions:
The first kind of Linux is the system with Desktop That means that you have an desktop like

Windows.
The most important Distributions With Desktop are:
Suse (Suse is the best Linux from private Use)
Fedora
Ubuntu
Mandriva
The next kind is the kind Without Desktop That means that you have no desktop and you
must do all with the shell. The 2 important ones are:
Debian (Debian is the best Linux for servers)
Red Hat
the 3rd kind is a live-cd-Linux’, that means you can boot it from a cd you will also have a desktop. The 2 important ones are:
Knoppix (Knoppix is the best Linux, that you can boot from CD to secure your data)

Gentoo
Now I will explain a startup-prozess from Knoppix
First it loads the CD-ROM
Here it writes the data from the CD into the RAM.
Then Knoppix beginning to boot and then The Linux Kernel is starting.
And Here it loads all Hardware drivers.
Now I will tell you something about the Linux command Shell:
The Linux shell is an part of Linux there you can do all, it looks like ms-dos. You can start / stop applications there, make users, change settings and many things more…
In an Linux with desktop you click on the shell button.
If you want to connect to a Linux server you need a free shell program like puty or SSE Secure Shell.
SSH ÖFFNEN
Now I will explain Some Shell Commands and how to start / stop an application
First you have to type su + the username to change the User.
Then you must type cd to change the directory.
Now you can start a program
for example ./Aseco.sh
Now I tell how to stop an application
First you have to write ps aux. Now you can see all running applications.
Then you must look what user and What program it is, in the line there stands a gid number
And you can stop a program when you Type kill +GID number.
I hope that my presentation was good and was interesting for you.
Thanks for your listening if you have any questions, ask me!
Linux is an operating system that was initially created as a hobby by a young student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Linus began his work in 1991 and worked continuously until 1994 when version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel was released.
The kernel, at the heart of all Linux systems, is developed and released under the GNU General Public License and its source code is freely available to everyone.
Linux is used as an operating system for a wide variety of computer hardware, including servers. desktop computers, supercomputers, E-book readers, video game systems such as the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3, several arcade games, and embedded devices such as mobile phones and routers.
The official mascot of Linux is the Tux. It is included in many Computer games.
Applications:
Through the efforts of developers of desktop management systems such as KDE and GNOME, office suite project OpenOffice.org and the Mozilla web browser project, to name only a few, there are now a wide range of applications that run on Linux and it can be used by anyone regardless of his/her knowledge of computers.
Distributions:
With Desktop:
Suse (Suse is the best Linux from private Use)
Fedora
Ubuntu
Mandriva
Without Desktop:
Debian (Debian is the best Linux for servers)
Red Hat
Bootable from CD:
Knoppix (Knoppix is the best Linux, that you can boot from CD to secure your dates)
Gentoo
Sources:
www.linux.org
www.linux.com

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