literary text -> plot:
– structure of the action
– describe main conflict
– exposition: description of the setting, main characters, main conflict/problem
– rising action: main conflict/suspense is build up
– climax/turning point: main conflict is most intensive
– falling action: suspense is reduced
– ending: main conflict is resolved -> happy end, open end, catastrophe
non-fictional text -> argumentative structure
– deduction: common -> special
– induction: special -> common
– structure of the text paragraphs
– structure of the paragraphs -> description of authors strategy, actions (->
compare, state, say, quote, describe)
– language: simple/complex sentences/terms; colloquial/high standard,
stylistic devices
– irony, satire, sarcasm, puns
– exaggerations, hyperboles
– emotional words: „blame“, „kill“, „destroy“, „bomb“, „murder“
– objective/subjective -> one sided/two sided argumentation -> conclusion
– author’s aim
3.Point of view
– view/perspective the story is told from
1st person narrator
– involved in the story -> main/minor character
– pronouns: I, you, me, we, us …
3rd person narrator
– not involved in the story
– pronouns: he, she …
omniscient point of view
– knows everything
– eg: fairy tale
limited point of view
– observer
selective omniscient point of view
– in some issues narrator knows everything, in others he’s limited
4.Text type -> text form
• fictional texts
– characters, time, place is imagination of the author
– can be based on reality
– text forms:
Short story/short play
– simple plot, straight action
– one mainstream, no side plots -> one action
– limited number of characters
– unity of time and place -> short play: one act, no scenes
– abrupt beginning, no exposition, starts with rising action
– abrupt, surprising end, open end
– most of the story is rising action
– short/no falling action
– condensed information
– decisive moment: uncovers secret significance by creating a personal
situation transfered to a universal conflict
– single effect -> audience can understand the private conflict that stands for
the universal conflict
– deals with everyday problems
– colloquial language; short, simple sentences
– usually performed
– divided into acts/scenes
– scenes: no change of the setting
– acts: setting can change
traditional five-acts play:
– 1st act: exposition
– 2nd act: rising action
– 3rd act: climax/turning point
– 4th act: falling action
– 5th act: catastrophe/denouement
modern plays: open beginning/end
– divided into stanzas
– rhyme schemes
– assonance/alliteration
– free verse/rhythm
• non-fictional texts
– based on real facts, no imagination
– do not have to be true
– text froms:
– controversial matter that needs to be looked at from all sides is discussed
– pros and cons are given
– conclusion with personal opinion of the author
– eg: comments, newspaper articles, essays, interviews
– precise, detailed description of the physical characteristics/features of a
– subjective impressions
– short, precise, objective, condensed explanation of an issue
– reduced to the essential
– eg: reference book, dictionary, summary
– presentation of actions in temporal order
– describe what can be seen
– explain characteristics of people/things that can be seen
– describe the main problem and the different sides of the problem ->
– conclusion/own opinion, proposals
– name of the person
– description -> appearance
– actions, intentions, language, reactions, opinion
– social background, profession, life standard, relationship to others, economic
– gestures/mimics
– eg: long hair -> protest
explicit characterization
– directly said, can be read out
– told by author/narrator or characters/character himself
implicit characterization
– derive from the characteristics of actions, intentions, reactions, …
– exact place/time
– social/historical background
– description of the surrounding/environment -> smell, things around
– mood/emotions -> depressive/happy
– daytime -> day/night -> dark, sinister/bright, light
– short story: everything is a symbol: river -> transport, departure
– what: main issue/conflict
– who: main characters
– where/when: setting, place, time, atmosphere, social surroundings
– why: internal/external conflict
– simple present
– no direct speech
– no personal comments -> objective/neutral

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